Seeds can be contaminated by fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, and other pathogens that reduce seed quality and create a risk for the spread of disease. One component of managing these risks is a robust seed health testing program. Seed health testing refers to the detection of pathogens in or on seeds. Seed health testing is performed by seed companies, private laboratories, and public labs or agencies, in order to assure seed quality, to prevent disease outbreaks, and to meet phytosanitary regulations. In this part of the course, we will have lectures and demonstrations of the major seed health testing methods including visual inspection, grow-outs, incubation tests, antibody-based tests (ELISA), and DNA-or RNA-based tests (PCR).